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Mosquito Management Archives - Catchmaster Pro

The 2021 Mosquito Season Review

By | Mosquitoes | No Comments

For most of the United States, ‘mosquito season’ is over, making it the perfect time for a 2021 mosquito season review.  The overwhelming majority of adult mosquitoes have been killed by the cold weather, while others are overwintering in protected areas such as animal burrows, inside buildings, cracks and crevices, etc.  Let’s take a look at a few of the headlines from 2021.

2020 Mosquito Season Review - Fun Facts

2021 Mosquito Season Review – CDC Statistics for 2021

West Nile virus (WNv) continues to be the most commonly reported mosquito-transmitted virus in the US.  Since WNv was first detected in New York City in 1999, 51,801 human cases and 2,390 deaths have been reported to the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The averages per year are 2,467 cases and 114 deaths.

In 2021, as of December 14th, CDC has reported 2,445 cases and 165 deaths from WNv.  Sixty-nine percent of the cases were the more severe forms, known collectively as ‘neuroinvasive’, while the other 31% were ‘non-neuroinvasive’.  Interestingly, Arizona alone accounted for 1,426 (58.3%) of the cases and 96 (58.2%) of the deaths.

As of December 1st, CDC has reported 86 travel-related cases of dengue fever but no locally acquired cases.  There have been 470 locally acquired cases of dengue reported from Puerto Rico.  One other note of interest is that New Hampshire reported four human cases of Jamestown Canyon virus.

Are All Mosquitoes Vectors for Disease?

One of the most frequent questions I get is ‘do all mosquito species transmit pathogens to humans’?.  The answer is a resounding ‘no’!  In fact, most of the estimated 3,600 species of mosquitoes in the world don’t bite humans but instead prefer the blood of large mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and other creatures.  In 2020, CDC stated “Over 200 types of mosquitoes live in the continental United States and US territories; of these 200, about 12 types spread germs that can make people sick. Other mosquitoes bother people and are considered nuisance mosquitoes.”

What does 2022 hold for the world of mosquitoes and mosquito-transmitted diseases?  Whatever happens, CAPT Stan will be here to report on it.  Best wishes for the New Year ahead!

Captain Stan Cope (aka the Mosquito Man) is our Vice President of Technical Services and blogs frequently on mosquitoes. In addition to his social media content you can find his blog archives here: https://catchmasterpro.com/?s=captain+stan

2021 Mosquito Season Review – Additional Resources

Get our free mosquito management program guide when you sign up for our e-mail list here: https://catchmasterpro.com/mosquito-management-program/

Get more content like this daily when you follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/catchmasterPRO/

Discover our full line of Catchmaster® mosquito management tools:  https://catchmasterpro.com/collection/mosquito-management-tools/

Finally, learn more about mosquitoes from the NPMA here: https://www.pestworld.org/pest-guide/mosquitoes/

Post-Flood Pest Prevention

Post-Flood Pest Prevention

By | Tips & Inspirations, Uncategorized | No Comments

Post-Flood Pest Prevention Importance

Post-flood pest prevention takes on increased urgency as weather patterns fluctuate.  For example, summer 2021 ended in historic flooding as Tropical Storm Ida traveled a path from New Orleans up through New York state. Those in the wake of the storm experienced staggering rainfall amounts exceeding 10 inches in many parts of New Jersey and over 3 inches of rain per hour in Manhattan. The aftereffects of this historic rain event were felt from mold growth to increased pest infestations.  Additionally, the rain displaced rodent populations. As the region works to clean-up the aftermath, new pest problems are arising. Here are the most common pest infestations following storm damaged areas and what you can do about them.

Top 3 Post-Flood Pests & Treatment Options

1. Flies

Flies often increase after flooding. High winds and driving rains knock down garbage cans and spread debris across. For instance, as crews work to clean-up, downed trees, garbage and vegetative debris along with increased moisture attracts pests to these affected areas. Clean up trash and debris as quickly as possible after a storm. For increased fly popuations check out our flying insect jars and traps for use around your home, business and property.

2. Mosquitoes

As a result of increased water, mosquito populations can rise after a storm. Female mosquitoes need stagnant water to lay their eggs and the opportunity presents itself when excess rains hit an area. Floodwater mosquitoes typically lay their eggs in the soil just above the natural waterline. Eggs can lay dormant for years without hatching. Unfortunately, as floodwaters wash through an area that water can help those eggs hatch in masses causing large populations of mosquitoes in the weeks that follow. Fortunately, Catchmaster has a full line of mosquito traps for use in residential areas to control mosquito populations. Significantly reduce mosquito populations with our easy-to-use traps that cover up to an acre of property at a time.

3. Rodents

Rodent carcasses are washing up on New York City beaches as countless rodents in New York drown due to flooding rains. Displaced rodents rose from their underground shelters while others climbed vertically into living areas. If you are discovering a new found rodent presence in or around your property consider Catchmaster traps and glueboards to monitor, trap and capture mice and rats on your property before they take residence.

Post-Flood Pest Prevention - Mosquito Breeding Sites

Remember to take extra precautions with pests after a flood moves through your area. Just as humans are affected by high rain levels so are pest and rodent populations.

Bobby Kossowicz is a content creator for the Catchmaster brand, learn more here: https://catchmasterpro.com/blog/bobby-kossowicz/

Post-Flood Pest Prevention – Additional Resources

First, get more great content like this in your inbox – sign up for our mailing list here: https://catchmasterpro.com/join-email/

Next, learn more about our rodent management tools here: https://catchmasterpro.com/collection/rodent-management-tools/

Finally, learn more about your pest management professional options from the National Pest Management Association here: https://npmapestworld.org/

Tips for Reducing Mosquito Callbacks

By | Mosquitoes, Tips & Inspirations | No Comments

Learn how to maximize your  time in the field with these tips for reducing mosquito callbacks.

Callbacks and retreatments for your mosquito service can be costly, time-consuming, and usually result in unhappy customers or the service being cancelled.  Here are a few tips to help you avoid them.

Tips for Reducing Mosquito Callbacks

Top 14 Tips for Reducing Mosquito Callbacks

  1. The number one reason for callbacks, in my experience, is improper or a lack of inspections on each visit.
  2. Do the proper math on the treatment area and apply the correct amount of product.
  3. Use the highest label rate allowed for the first treatment of the season.
  4. Use the proper application technique to get maximum penetration and product on underside of vegetation and other resting places (under decks, sheds, etc.).
  5. Vegetation grows quickly in summer. Be sure to target NEW vegetation on each service.
  6. Rotate chemicals with different modes of action to avoid resistance.
  7. Many times the breeding sites are on adjacent properties. If you suspect this:
    • Offer a free inspection to the neighbors.
    • Incorporate traps in your service to intercept egg-laying females coming onto your customers’ property.
    • Ask your customer to speak with the neighbors about your service.
  8. Keep vegetation trimmed to impact CAPT Stan’s Big Four where mosquitoes hang out: shade, moisture, cool, out of wind.
  9. Set/manage customer expectations.  We aren’t very good at this as an industry.  If you advertise ‘eradication’ or ‘no more mosquitoes’, you will have callbacks.    I prefer the phrase ‘nuisance reduction’.
  10. Recommend floor fans and use of repellents in between services (CDC has a great website on the latter – Insect Repellents Help Prevent Malaria and Other Diseases Spread by Mosquitoes (cdc.gov)
  11. Verify with customers where in the yard they are being bitten and what time of day. This will provide clues as to what species you are dealing with.
  12. Check for cryptic breeding sites such as plant drainage saucers, piles of leaves, corrugated attachments for downspouts, clogged gutters, etc.
  13. Change outdoor lighting scheme to sodium vapor. Many species of mosquitoes are highly attracted to ‘regular’ light.
  14. If a problem persists, try and get the mosquitoes identified. This can be done by your Chief Science Officer (if you have one), technical specialist, a local mosquito abatement district, or an entomologist at a local university.

Captain Stan Cope (aka the Mosquito Man) is our Vice President of Technical Services and blogs frequently on mosquitoes. In addition to his social media content you can find his blog archives here: https://catchmasterpro.com/?s=captain+stan

Additional Resources

Get our free mosquito management program guide when you sign up for our e-mail list here: https://catchmasterpro.com/mosquito-management-program/

Get more content like this daily when you follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/catchmasterPRO/

Discover our full line of Catchmaster® mosquito management tools:  https://catchmasterpro.com/collection/mosquito-management-tools/

Finally, learn more about mosquitoes from the NPMA here: https://www.pestworld.org/pest-guide/mosquitoes/

Reasons for Concern with Invasive Mosquitoes

By | Mosquitoes | No Comments

With spring here, there continue to be reasons for concern with invasive mosquitoes. An invasive species may be defined as a living organism, including but not limited to plants, parasites, pathogens, fungi, and animals (including insects) that is nonnative to an ecosystem and begins to spread out or expand its range from the original site of introduction.  Additionally, the species must have the potential to cause harm to the environment, the economy, or human health.

Reasons for Concern with Invasive Mosquitoes - Map

Invasive mosquito species have been in the news lately.  The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), first discovered in Texas in 1985, has now spread to over 1,300 counties in 40 states in the U.S.  More recently in Florida (2020), the mosquito Aedes scapularis was found to be well-established in two southern counties.

From a public health and quality of life perspective, there are significant reasons to be concerned about invasive mosquito species including:

4 Reasons for Concern with Invasive Mosquitoes

  • Increased Annoyance. Some of these species, especially the Asian tiger mosquito, are very aggressive biters during the daytime and they can quickly ruin outdoor activities.
  • Introduction Of New Pathogens. Although not highly likely, there is the possibility that a mosquito carrying a virus or other pathogen could make its way to the U.S. via airplane, ship, or other mode of transportation.  This has happened several times with malaria.
  • Endemic Disease Cycles. As invasive mosquito species establish and their population numbers increase, it is possible, and in some cases probable, that they will become involved in the endemic (regularly found) disease cycles in the U.S. such as West Nile virus.
  • Geographic Expansion. Many invasive species are easily transported during human activity, primarily due to the drought-resistant eggs they produce.  Accordingly, we will undoubtedly see these mosquitoes continue to expand their range.

Invasive Mosquitoes  – Additional Resources

Get our free mosquito management program guide when you sign up for our e-mail list here: https://catchmasterpro.com/mosquito-management-program/

Get more content like this daily when you follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/catchmasterPRO/

Discover our full line of Catchmaster® mosquito management tools:  https://catchmasterpro.com/collection/mosquito-management-tools/

Finally, learn more about mosquitoes from the NPMA here: https://www.pestworld.org/pest-guide/mosquitoes/

Neglected Tropical Diseases

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Neglected tropical diseases, some of which are insect-borne, affect approximately 1.7 billion people and remain a threat, even with resources being reallocated to fight the current pandemic.  This group of diseases, known collectively by the World Health Organization (WHO) as ‘Neglected Tropical Diseases’, or NTDs, can cause terrible suffering around the globe. Fortunately, some of them can be prevented or cured.

Neglected Tropical Diseases - Graph

Neglected Tropical Diseases

The NTDs include Chagas disease, leprosy, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), yaws, trachoma, filariasis/elephantiasis, intestinal worms, dengue, chikungunya, onchocerciasis, Guinea worm disease, schistosomiasis, scabies, schistosomiasis, snakebite envenoming, and a few others.  About half of the NTDs are transmitted by insect bites, especially mosquitoes.

5 Highlights of Dangerous Insect-Borne Diseases

  • The number of people impacted dropped from 2.0 billion in 2010 to 1.7 billion in 2017.
  • These diseases blind, disable, and disfigure people, keeping children out of school and adults out of work so the economic burden is stifling.
  • NTDs are found primarily in poorer populations in tropical and sub-tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and South America.
  • Since a WHO ‘roadmap to eradication’ was developed in 2012, 42 countries have eliminated at least one NTD.
  • It is the goal of WHO to have a 90% reduction in people requiring treatment for NTDs in the next 10 years. This is to be done by providing safe and available drugs, and through aggressive vector control.

It is easy to forget that billions of people in the world are still impacted by diseases, many of them vector-borne, and that somewhere between 750,000 and 1 million people still die from malaria every year.  And as world travel continues to increase at an astounding rate, the risk of infection and disease goes up!

Captain Stan Cope (aka the Mosquito Man) is our Vice President of Technical Services and blogs frequently on mosquitoes. In addition to his social media content you can find his blog archives here: https://catchmasterpro.com/?s=captain+stan

Neglected Tropical Diseases – Additional Resources

Get our free mosquito management program guide when you sign up for our e-mail list here: https://catchmasterpro.com/mosquito-management-program/

Get more content like this daily when you follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/catchmasterPRO/

Discover our full line of Catchmaster® mosquito management tools:  https://catchmasterpro.com/collection/mosquito-management-tools/

Finally, learn more about mosquitoes from the NPMA here: https://www.pestworld.org/pest-guide/mosquitoes/

Resources to Improve Your Mosquito Service

By | Mosquitoes, Pest Business, Tips & Inspirations | No Comments

The mosquito business can be tough, fortunately there are resources to improve your mosquito service.  As you gear up for the mosquito season, I draw your attention to what are likely untapped resources for your company – professional mosquito control organizations (PMCOs) and mosquito abatement districts (MADs), which are usually funded by various taxes.

Resources to Improve Your Mosquito Service

Resources to Improve Your Mosquito Service - Map

Mosquito Abatement Districts

The responsibility for public mosquito control in the United States resides in different organizations, depending on state and county policies.  It may be the state health department, a county public works facility or other.  But what I am specifically referring to here are the MADs.  As you might expect, they are more numerous in some states than others; for example, Florida alone has about 60!  I strongly urge you to find out if there is a MAD in your areas of operation.  If so, give them a call and ask to visit.  They are very proud of what they do, and you can learn a great deal from them.  One piece of valuable information will be where they treat and DON’T treat = business opportunities for you!

Professional Mosquito Control Organizations

Also, many states have mosquito control associations, and there are also several regional ones that cover several states.  In addition, there is the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA), which has around 1,400 members in over 50 countries.  See www.mosquito.org for more information.  Membership for you or your company (as a sustaining member) in one or more of these will bring many benefits including access to newsletters, up-to-date information on mosquito control products, tremendous networking opportunities, training events, workshops, annual meetings, etc.  If you really want to learn and practice Integrated Mosquito Management, this is a great place to start.

If CAPT Stan can facilitate any of this for you, especially the MAD visits, please contact me.  I would be happy to provide you with an email introduction.  I am standing by to assist.  scope@catchmaster.com or 551.689.8073.

Captain Stan Cope (aka the Mosquito Man) is our Vice President of Technical Services and blogs frequently on mosquitoes. In addition to his social media content you can find his blog archives here: https://catchmasterpro.com/?s=captain+stan

Resources to Improve Your Mosquito Service – Additional Links

Get our free mosquito management program guide when you sign up for our e-mail list here: https://catchmasterpro.com/mosquito-management-program/

Get more content like this daily when you follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/catchmasterPRO/

Discover our full line of Catchmaster® mosquito management tools:  https://catchmasterpro.com/collection/mosquito-management-tools/

Finally, learn more about mosquitoes from the NPMA here: https://www.pestworld.org/pest-guide/mosquitoes/

The 2020 Mosquito Season Review

By | Mosquitoes | No Comments

As cold weather settles in over most of the United States and insect activity diminishes, let’s take a look back at some of the happenings with a 2020 mosquito season review.  Two of our most dangerous disease vectors, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) continue to expand their range in the US.  These two species are the primary transmitters of the viruses that cause Zika, chikungunya, dengue, and yellow fever.  A third species, the Asian bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus) is rapidly spreading in the Eastern US.  Its disease-transmitting potential is not well understood.

2020 Mosquito Season Review - Fun Facts

2020 Mosquito Season Review – CDC Statistics for 2020

The mosquito-borne disease burden for humans and animals was substantial.  The numbers below are from CDC’s website.  Note that full reporting for 2020 is not yet complete.  There was evidence of West Nile virus activity in people, birds, or mosquitoes in 44 states.  Also, there were 540 human cases, well below our average of about 2,000 per year; 184 (34%) of the cases occurred in California.  There were 9 human cases and a large number of equine cases of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), compared to 36 human cases in 2019.

Dengue fever made a dramatic reappearance, with 250 total reported cases.  181 of those were travel-related while the rest of the cases (69) were all locally acquired in Florida, primarily in the Florida Keys.  Finally, there were 5 cases of a relative rare disease, caused by Jamestown Canyon virus, reported from New Hampshire.

A Rough Year for Mosquito Surveillance

It is really unclear how much actual disease from mosquito bites there was in 2020.  Many surveillance and control programs were crippled or actually shut down by the pandemic, and personnel resources were reallocated.  One piece of good news, however, is that there is absolutely no scientific evidence that the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 is transmitted by mosquitoes.

2021 will likely bring more outbreaks and surprises in the mosquito universe and CAPT Stan will be here to bring you all the news!  Best wishes for the holiday season and new year.

Captain Stan Cope (aka the Mosquito Man) is our Vice President of Technical Services and blogs frequently on mosquitoes. In addition to his social media content you can find his blog archives here: https://catchmasterpro.com/?s=captain+stan

2020 Mosquito Season Review – Additional Resources

Get our free mosquito management program guide when you sign up for our e-mail list here: https://catchmasterpro.com/mosquito-management-program/

Get more content like this daily when you follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/catchmasterPRO/

Discover our full line of Catchmaster® mosquito management tools:  https://catchmasterpro.com/collection/mosquito-management-tools/

Finally, learn more about mosquitoes from the NPMA here: https://www.pestworld.org/pest-guide/mosquitoes/

Mosquito Service Certification

By | Mosquitoes, Pest Business, Tips & Inspirations | No Comments

With down time in the winter months, now is a great time to focus on your mosquito service certification. Are you or one of your ambitious staff members looking for a winter project?  The National Pest Management Association (NPMA), through the QualityPro program, has made available Public Health certifications targeting mosquito and rodent services.  Additional certifications for bed bugs, stinging and biting insects, and wildlife are in development.

Mosquito Service Certification - US Map

QualityPro Certification – Background

To create these certifications, QualityPro brought in the ‘Pros From Dover’ including folks from NPMA, the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention, the American Mosquito Control Association, the Entomological Society of America, the National Environmental Health Association, a vector control district, and five pest control companies!

Before applying for the Public Health certifications, a company must first earn QualityPro accreditation and be in good standing.  The package of materials and information that must be submitted is substantial and will likely take a few months to compile so be ready.  Upon submission, QualityPro will review the package and either accept it or suggest modifications to improve it.  All materials submitted will be treated as confidential and proprietary.

Getting your mosquito service a national certification is a major differentiator for your company and will instill greater confidence in current and future customers.  To learn more about the program and requirements, visit:

https://www.npmaqualitypro.org/available-credentials/qualitypro-public-health/

Good luck and be sure to address all the requirements!

Captain Stan Cope (aka the Mosquito Man) is our Vice President of Technical Services and blogs frequently on mosquitoes. In addition to his social media content you can find his blog archives here: https://catchmasterpro.com/?s=captain+stan

Mosquito Service Certification – Additional Resources

Get our free mosquito management program guide when you sign up for our e-mail list here: https://catchmasterpro.com/mosquito-management-program/

Get more content like this daily when you follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/catchmasterPRO/

Discover our full line of Catchmaster® mosquito management tools:  https://catchmasterpro.com/collection/mosquito-management-tools/

Finally, learn more about mosquitoes from the NPMA here: https://www.pestworld.org/pest-guide/mosquitoes/

 

 

Mosquito Season Arbovirus Update

By | Mosquitoes, Tips & Inspirations | No Comments

In this 2020 mosquito season arbovirus update learn about the need to remain vigilant.

As Fall arrives in much of the United States and cooler temperatures prevail, there may be a tendency to minimize the threat posed by mosquitoes when in fact the opposite is true.  Several arthropod-borne viruses (known as ‘arboviruses’) transmitted by mosquitoes are still active. And the threat will continue until the first hard frost hits your area.

Mosquito Season Arbovirus Update - Map

2020 Arbovirus Update

At the time of this writing, there have been 49 cases of West Nile disease in humans in Miami, Florida.  Similarly, 26 cases of dengue fever in the upper Florida Keys.  Additionally, there have been 5 human cases of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), 4 in Massachusetts and 1 in Wisconsin. Two human cases of Jamestown Canyon virus have been reported in New Hampshire. Finally, there has been a death from St. Louis encephalitis in California.

The current COVID-19 mayhem has impacted our national ability to monitor for mosquito-transmitted viruses.  Many surveillance programs, particularly at the state health department level, have been compromised as personnel, resources and funding have been redirected (and justifiably so) toward the pandemic response.  Additionally, practices such as social distancing and self-quarantining have reduced bodies in the workplace, where folks would be testing mosquito pools for viruses, as well as on the road, where folks would normally be out collecting the mosquitoes for testing or just doing mosquito control.  Overall, this has somewhat reduced the normal amount of information and knowledge we would have regarding the risk of mosquito-transmitted diseases.

Therefore, CAPT Stan implores you to not let your guard down as the seasons start to change.  Please follow CDC’s guidelines at the link below to help protect you and your family.  Thank you.

https://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/prevent-mosquito-bites.html

Captain Stan Cope (aka the Mosquito Man) is our Vice President of Technical Services and blogs frequently on mosquitoes. In addition to his social media content you can find his blog archives here: https://catchmasterpro.com/?s=captain+stan

Mosquito Season Arbovirus Update – Additional Resources

Get our free mosquito management program guide when you sign up for our e-mail list here: https://catchmasterpro.com/mosquito-management-program/

Get more content like this daily when you follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/catchmasterPRO/

Discover our full line of Catchmaster® mosquito management tools:  https://catchmasterpro.com/collection/mosquito-management-tools/

Finally, learn more about mosquitoes from the NPMA here: https://www.pestworld.org/pest-guide/mosquitoes/

Tips for Retaining Mosquito Customers

By | Mosquitoes, Pest Business, Tips & Inspirations | No Comments

Keep your business strong through the end of the season with these 6 tips for retaining mosquito customers. As summer winds down and cooler temperatures arrive, your customers may not see as many mosquitoes and decide ‘hey, let’s save a few bucks and cancel that last mosquito service or two’.  This is a bad idea for a number of reasons and you and your team need to be able to explain why or you may lose revenue.

6 Tips for Retaining Mosquito Customers - Life Cycle

As the daylight grows shorter, mosquitoes prepare to enter something called ‘diapause’.  It is a very complicated and chemically sophisticated biological process.  Think of it as a resting stage, triggered by the environment, when bodily functions are shut down or greatly reduced.  They don’t quite go to sleep but almost!  Here are some talking points and tips to discuss with your customers.

6 Tips for Retaining Mosquito Customers

  1. Diapause is a mechanism that helps mosquito populations maintain a presence in an area and spread the next season.
  2. Even if a female mosquito has entered diapause, if the weather suddenly warms up in the fall, she may become active and seek a blood meal.
  3. Human pathogens, particularly viruses such as West Nile and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis, will overwinter in diapausing mosquitoes.
  4. Killing diapausing female mosquitoes will help reduce population numbers at the start of the next season.
  5. Overwintering harborages used by mosquitoes may be different than those used during the mosquito season. Examples are under sheds; in cellars, outbuildings, and crawlspaces; window wells; vents; and animal burrows.
  6. Finally, emphasize to your customers that your end-of-season service will specifically target these potential overwintering sites.

Captain Stan Cope (aka the Mosquito Man) is our Vice President of Technical Services and blogs frequently on mosquitoes. In addition to his social media content you can find his blog archives here: https://catchmasterpro.com/?s=captain+stan

Additional Resources

Get our free mosquito management program guide when you sign up for our e-mail list here: https://catchmasterpro.com/mosquito-management-program/

Get more content like this daily when you follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/catchmasterPRO/

Discover our full line of Catchmaster® mosquito management tools:  https://catchmasterpro.com/collection/mosquito-management-tools/

Finally, learn more about mosquitoes from the NPMA here: https://www.pestworld.org/pest-guide/mosquitoes/